What Are Natural Fabrics?

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Natural Fabrics

  • It breathes.
  • Does not sweat.
  • It has no allergic properties.
  • It is difficult to maintain and washing instructions must be followed.
  • They wrinkle more quickly.
  • They are difficult to iron.



Cotton is a very widely used natural fiber of plant origin. Cotton is obtained from the cocoon of the plant. Chemically, it consists of cotton fiber, cotton wax and pure cellulose containing a small amount of cottonseed oil. Cellulose: It is an organic substance created by plants in nature through synthesis. The trapping of air inside the cotton gives the cotton fabric an insulating property. The amount of air trapped on the cotton side is less than that of wool, and its retention is moderate. It is less flexible, strong and durable.

Properties such as absorbency, wet resistance, softness and durability distinguish cotton from other fibers. Cotton absorbs more moisture than wool. It allows the sweat to evaporate and mix with the air, and at the same time, it gives the clothes a texture that can be worn comfortably, especially in hot conditions. For this reason, it is generally preferred in underwear and baby clothes.

Cotton fabrics are suitable for washing in hot water and wringing. It can be hung to dry. If it is ironed when it is damp, the crease will open more quickly, and when it is dry, it can be ironed with a hot steam iron.

When synthetics are mixed with cotton fabrics, they are less wrinkled and ironed more easily. Cotton fabrics dry later when washed than synthetic fabrics such as polyester. This is because natural fibers such as cotton are more absorbent than synthetics and absorb more water. Therefore, their drying is delayed.

It shrinks when washed at high temperatures, is resistant to ironing, and if it is colored, care should be taken that it is alone in the first wash.

It keeps cool and is flexible, resistant to friction and impacts.

Color fastness to washes is not high and prone to wrinkling.



Its main features are its strength, softness, shine and stretchiness.

It is obtained from the silkworm.

Silk is extremely delicate, shiny and light. Wrinkles, absorbs moisture and does not sweat. They are fabrics sensitive to heat, sweat and light. Even water drops leave a stain on silk.

It cannot be washed in a very high temperature and centrifugal machine.

Silk fabrics cannot be washed in the washing machine. It should be washed by hand with lukewarm water, using shampoo, and should not be wringing or wringing.

In the case of stubborn stains, it is necessary to consult a specialist.

Ironing should be done with a warm grade iron while the fabric is damp, care should be taken not to use a steam iron.

It is durable, very light, soft and pleasant to the touch.

Color durability is high.

It is sensitive to sweating and being scratched.



Flax, which is a stem fiber such as jute, hemp and sisal, is obtained from the stem of the plant called linum usitatissium.

The need for many different processes for spinning and the weaving difficulties caused by the inflexibility of the yarn make linen less economical than cotton, which is easy and cheap to produce.

Linen fabrics are very durable and absorbent. Linen fabrics made of slippery flax fiber cannot keep the air hidden. This makes it feel fresh and cool.

The fact that it takes the moisture and releases it to the atmosphere immediately has a ventilating effect on the body in hot environments. Therefore, it is also suitable for use in summer wear and in bed linen in hot regions. Linen yarn is used in weaving rather than knitting because of its rigid structure.

Natural linen, which crumples very quickly, should be ironed while damp.

It should always be washed by hand and with cold water, it should not be dried in a centrifugal machine and it should not be washed with very hot water.

The tendency to wrinkle is very high.

It is resistant to ironing.

It keeps cool and is soft to the touch, resistant to dirt.



Wool is a hair-based protein fiber obtained from sheep, with high curling in its naturalness.

The fineness of the fiber is important for the quality of the yarn and therefore the fabric. The thinner and longer the fiber, the thinner and longer the fabric is. The fineness of the wool fiber is measured in microns. (1 micron: one 1000th of a millimeter.)

Its fineness, structure and characteristics vary according to the type of sheep it is obtained from. Certain types of wool; merino, lincoln, leichester, sussex, chevrot and shetland' secret.

Wool fabrics are soft and flexible fabrics with high moisture absorption properties. Wool fiber consists of overlapping flakes going in the same direction. The air trapped in the fiber gives the wool insulation properties against hot and cold. Although the wool can absorb 40-50% of its dry weight, wetness is not felt and does not pass the heat out of the body.

It shrinks when washed at high temperatures, and deforms if hung to dry.

It insulates heat very well, has a high humidity feature and easily finds its lost shape.

It is prone to matting and yellowing.



It is the second layer silky wool of goats living in the highlands of China, India, and Mongolia, which is formed in the coldest weather. Obtained through scanning. A maximum of 50 g cashmere is obtained from a goat per year.

Although it is similar to wool with many features, it is thinner, brighter and softer.

Cashmere is used in luxury products that require softness, warmth and good draping.

It prevents cold and sweating by balancing body temperature.

The Sanskrit cashmira is claimed to come from the Khasa tribe's word kayapamira.


Synthetic Fabrics

  • It has breathing properties.
  • It is durable.
  • It is very easy to maintain.
  • Polyester, Nylon and Lycra.

They are very sensitive to heat, they should be washed with warm water and ironed at low temperature without steam.

They do not wrinkle much and their color durability is high.

They can burn easily and carry static electricity.

The information given is valid for fabrics with pure composition. In the case of blends, care should be taken by learning the percentage of each fabric.



It is made of polyester. This synthetic fiber is also strong and durable. Although it is resistant to chemicals, especially acids and sunlight, there are some difficulties in painting.

It is easy to maintain. It makes it easy to use the mixed product.

With the development of dyeing technique, polyacrylonitrile fibers started to gain more importance in the field of clothing.

The fiber was introduced to the market in the 1950s in the form of filaments under the name "orlon".

It occupies a large space especially in knitting works, and it provides advantages with its soft, comfortable and light weight. While similar wool items should only be washed by hand and with care, acrylic products can be easily washed in the washing machine.


Artificial Fabrics

Acetate, Rayon and Viscose.

  • They should not be washed in a centrifugal machine so that they do not deform.
  • They are very soft to the touch and have high color fastness.
  • They have low moisture absorption properties, burn easily and carry static electricity.

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