What Does It Mean Nonwoven ?

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Information About Nonwoven Fabric

Some fabrics in textile materials are produced in a way that can be used in many sectors. Perhaps the most comprehensive of these materials is Nonwoven fabric.


What Does It Mean Nonwoven?

Nonwoven fabric is a technical textile material that is produced only for special uses, knitted or not woven, and has a very low cost compared to its usage time. This special product is known for its ability to attract and repel liquids, strong, flexible, soft, stretchy, fire retardant, filtering, and resistant to bacteria.

These non-woven products can be used in many application stages. When you read about some of the sectors and products that use nonwoven fabric, you will understand how extensive a product it is.


In Which Industries Is Nonwoven Fabric Used?

  • Hygiene Industry
  • Medical Sector
  • Textile sector
  • Artificial Leather Industry
  • Automotive industry
  • Construction Industry
  • Filter

Products Using Nonwoven Fabric

Nonwoven Fabric in the Hygiene Industry:

  • Wet wipes
  • Diapers
  • Feminine hygiene products
  • Dressing Cloths
  • Adult diapers
  • Disposable towels
  • Disposable slippers and shoes

Nonwoven Fabric Used in the Medical Sector:

  • Stretcher cover
  • Surgical gown
  • Bonnet
  • Mask
  • Surgical drapes and covers

Nonwoven Fabric Used in Automotive Industry:

  • Luggage Carpet
  • Ceiling carpet
  • Floor carpet
  • Insulator
  • Hat holder

Nonwoven Fabric Used in Textile Industry:

  • Felt under collar
  • Wicking

Nonwoven Fabric in Artificial Leather Industry:

  • Upholstery
  • Shoe cabinet
  • Bag holder

Nonwoven Fabric Used in Construction Industry:

  • Canal constructions
  • Drainage systems
  • Puddle and channel water barriers
  • Frost protection
  • Soil stabilizers

Nonwoven fabric Used in Filter Industry:

  • Water filters
  • Air filters
  • Oil filters

Nonwoven Fabric Properties

For the production of non-woven textile surfaces, for example, the spreader, pre-needle and main needle punching machines required for needled non-woven surfaces are being developed day by day, and in parallel, research and development studies are given importance. The advanced textile machinery industry in Europe is based on more than 70 years of technological know-how. Today, the very advanced material technology makes it possible to produce very fine endless fibers instead of thick fibers. Studies on non-woven surfaces gained momentum after the 1950s, and significant developments were recorded especially in the production of non-woven surfaces. In contrast to the woven surfaces formed by the intersection of the yarns in the perpendicular direction, the fibers on the non-woven surfaces are multi-directional and have a mixed structure. This complex structure on non-woven surfaces is given the property of isotropic (the ability to show the same strength under external loads that can act in all directions). In the past, yarn was strictly used to create fabric, except for felting, in which the animal fibers were brought together as a layer thanks to its scaly surface. Generally, nonwoven fabrics are made by reinforcing the fibers in a way that allows them to stay together by any means after being formed into a layer or cheesecloth. These fabrics reduce the cost by increasing the fabric production rate and reducing the number of workers and the amount of processing required in manufacturing. The properties of nonwoven fabrics depend on the way the fiber web is prepared, the type and fineness of the fiber used, the thickness of the web and the methods to be used to strengthen the structure. The first nonwoven fabrics were not attractive in terms of appearance, handle and drape. The characteristics of these fabrics have been improved, but they still do not have the desired handle and drape properties compared to woven and knitted fabrics. The adhesives that bind the fibers in the nonwoven fabric prevent the bending and sliding movements that provide the necessary double folding of the fabric when the fabric is desired to be covered.

In addition to the mentioned features, the following features can be expected depending on the end use:

  • Good shapeability,
  • Sufficient resistance to wet and dry cleaning solvents,
  • High absorbency,
  • Does not contain toxic and allergic materials,
  • Fluff-free surface,
  • Abrasion resistance,
  • Dimensional stability,
  • Maintaining its shape,
  • Ability to remove wrinkles at a certain level.

It is interesting to use it as an interlining and insulation pad in clothing, but it is useful to examine the main usage areas of nonwoven fabrics. Nonwoven fabrics are frequently used as a durable and durable product that is thrown away after use. Hygienic and absorbent products are the most used. In addition, its use in civil engineering is increasing. Nonwoven fabrics that can be used in different geotextiles are very common in flooring, especially in the form known as "tufting". Home textiles and the automotive industry can also be counted as areas of use, and they should be added to military applications, which have been emphasized recently. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of nonwoven surfaces in home textiles and floor coverings with the advantages of convenient use and economy.

Nonwowen Fibers

Polypropylene with 62%, polyester with 24% and viscose rayon with 8% are the leading fibers used in nonwoven production. In medical products and interlining, viscose has been replaced by PP. Fibers are the basic unit of nonwoven. Nonwoven's use, properties, aesthetics and performance are highly dependent on the component fibers. A fiber is any substance, whether natural or artificial, that has fabric-forming properties and a high length-to-width ratio. A wide range of fibers, both synthetic and natural, are used in the production of nonwovens. Mainly used fibers are polypropylene, polyester and rayon. These three fiber types make up a significant portion of the entire nonwoven fiber market.

Classification of Fibers

The system, which determines whether they are natural or artificial and based on fiber origins, is a suitable system for the classification of fibers.

Natural fibers can be classified into three main categories based on their origin:

Animal fibers: Protein-based (wool and hairs: sheep's wool, alpaca, camel, cashmere, mohair, llama, horsehair, cow hair); may be based on animal furs (rabbit, mink, muskrat and marten) or insect based (silkworm, spider secretion).

Vegetable fibers: Cellulose-based core fibers (cotton, kapok), bast bark or stem fibers (flax, hemp, jute and kenaf), leaf fibers (abaca, sisal, palm, pineapple and yukka), fruit fiber (coconut fiber), or stem fibers (various types of wood pulp).

Mineral fibers: Rock-based fibers, including asbestos, mineral wool, and basalt. In the artificial fiber category, it is appropriate to classify the fibers as synthetic and regenerated. In regenerated fibers, the builder polymer is obtained from a natural source but undergoes chemical and/or mechanical treatments to bring it into a usable fiber form. Rayon fiber is also obtained from naturally occurring cellulose (usually wood cellulose). It must undergo chemical and physical processes to convert it into fiber form that can be worked on conventional fiber processing equipment. In nonwovens, on the other hand, the number of fibers used in a significant amount is less and can be managed better.

The following fibers are important (in no particular order of importance) for nonwoven technology:

  • Rayon,
  • Polyester,
  • Cotton,
  • Polypropylene,
  • Nylon,
  • Wood pulp,
  • Pine,
  • Mixed chemical fiber composition.

Many natural and chemical materials can be used for nonwoven purposes.

However, in recent years, the use of chemical fibers has intensified. The fiber to be used in the construction is determined according to the usage area of the product, and the fibers that can provide this performance are selected in line with the expected usage performance. The main chemical fibers used in nonwoven surface production are presented below in a table. It is used in home textiles and flooring, natural fibers as well as chemical fibers. However, their use has decreased in recent years. The main reason for this is that natural fibers contain too many impurities and the cleaning process is difficult; as well as its inadequacy. In this context, detailed examination of natural fibers will not be entered. However, in line with the fact that some natural fiber performances cannot be achieved by chemical fibers, fibers used in flooring and home textiles such as cotton, wool and jute will be briefly processed.


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